Afghanistan has faced extreme levels of chronic insecurity, internal displacement and widespread poverty.
Pakistan has South Asia’s second largest economy, but inequality, poverty, conflict and limited access to basic social services have limited its development.
As well as being frequently affected by natural disasters, the country is also vulnerable to the climate crisis. The Covid-19 pandemic has made matters worse – with lockdown measures limiting people’s ability to move and work. The food supply chain has also been strained because of restricted access to markets and employment opportunities in farming.